JOURNAL ARTICLES-NOVEMBER 2018
Lowatcharin, G., & Stallmann, J. I. (2018). The differential effects of decentralization on police intensity: A cross-national comparison. The Social Science Journal.
This study is a cross-national exploration of the relationship between the varying degrees of police decentralization and police intensity. Decentralization allows more local choice about policing and police intensity, which allows citizens to express their preferences. Using policy intensity as a proxy for preferences, the paper tests whether police intensity varies between decentralized and centralized systems. The objectives are, first, to examine the association of centralized and decentralized police systems with police intensity via empirical analyses of 70 countries, and, second, to examine the association of centralized and decentralized police systems on police intensity in more and less developed countries. Findings from random effects estimations show that, in the 70 sample countries, more decentralized police systems are inversely associated with police intensity, measured as the number of general purpose police per capita. However, when the countries are categorized as more and less developed based on the Human Development Index, decentralized police systems tend to be positively related to police intensity in countries with a higher index but inversely in countries with a lower index. These findings suggest differential effects of police decentralization, and perhaps decentralization in general, between the two groups of countries.
Wyatt, S., & Teitelbaum, S. (2018). Certifying a state forestry agency in Quebec: Complementarity and conflict around government responsibilities, indigenous rights, and certification of the state as forest manager. Regulation & Governance, 0(0).
As voluntary third-party certification systems become an increasingly accepted part of international frameworks for forest governance, some state forestry agencies are following the private sector in seeking certification of their forest management activities. We ask how the roles and responsibilities of state forest management agencies interact with the processes and mechanisms established by certification systems. To answer this question, we review existing research to propose a conceptual framework composed of eight issues of particular relevance to states: regulation, transnationalism, sovereignty disputes, partnerships and competition, mainstreaming, effectiveness, equity, and legitimacy and trust. We then use this framework to analyze experience in Quebec, Canada, where the state agency initially sought certification and then abandoned this plan after facing difficulties meeting the requirements pertaining to indigenous rights. Our framework helps to understand possible complementarities between state and non-state systems, but also highlights challenges for reconciling state roles and responsibilities under certification.